The NEP of India 2020, endorsed by the Union Cabinet of India on 29 July 2020, traces the vision of the unused instruction framework of India. It replaces the past NEP, 1986. The vision of the approach is to construct an instruction framework established in Indian ethos that contributes straightforwardly to changing India by giving high-quality instruction to all, in this manner making India a worldwide information superpower.The new education policy aims to provide quality and equitable education to all Indian children.

Some of the main highlights of the policy are as follows.

  • It centers on all-encompassing and multidisciplinary instruction rather than rote learning.
  • Students will now not be reviewed on how well they keep in mind data from books, but on how well they can use what they know to fathom issues within the genuine world.
  • It emphasizes that the three-language equation will be taken after in schools, centering on the territorial dialect, Hindi, and English.
  • To make it less demanding for understudies to memorize territorial dialects, instruction within the to begin with five grades will be instructed in those dialects rather than English.
  • The school educational modules have been changed to instruct more fundamental ideas and skills.
  • The approach is basically concerned with how to utilize innovation to form instruction more open and useful
  • It conceives a framework where there's no qualification between provincial and urban zones, and all children have get to to quality education.
  • The approach proposes a few measures to move forward the quality of instructing, counting obligatory educator qualification tests, instructor proficient improvement programs, and educator instruction programs at the basic, auxiliary, and tertiary levels.
  • The arrangement also focuses on giving understudies professional and specialized instruction, guaranteeing they are way better arranged for the workforce when they take off school.
  • A National Higher Instruction Administrative Committee will be built up beneath the arrangement to supervise the direction of higher instruction institutions.
  • The arrangement looks to supply more prominent autonomy to higher instruction educate and advance scholastic portability. Subsequently, both open and private colleges will be represented by the same regulations.
  • An unused 5 3 3 4 instruction structure will be presented by this arrangement, moving absent from the current 10 2 system.
  • It points to extending the Net Enrolment Ratio in higher instruction to 50% by 2035.
  • The government has reported that a single controller will govern all higher instruction organizing (HEIs), with the exemption of Medical and Law Colleges. HEIs will presently need to reply to an unused body, the Office for Students.
  • The Master’s degree (MPhil) course will now not be required.

  • Principles of this Policy

    The purpose of the education system is to develop good human beings capable of rational thought and action, possessing compassion and empathy, courage and resilience, scientific temper, and creative imagination, with sound ethical moorings and values. It aims at producing engaged, productive, and contributing citizens for building an equitable, inclusive, and plural society as envisaged by our Constitution.

    A good education institution is one in which every student feels welcomed and cared for, where a safe and stimulating learning environment exists, where a wide range of learning experiences are offered, and where good physical infrastructure and appropriate resources conducive to learning are available to all students. Attaining these qualities must be the goal of every educational institution. However, at the same time, there must also be seamless integration and coordination across institutions and across all stages of education.

    The Policy recommends that all students will learn three languages in their school under the 'formula'. At least two of the three languages should be native to India. It also states that no language will be imposed on the students.

    The fundamental principles that will guide both the education system at large, as well as the individual institutions within it are:

  • Recognizing, identifying, and fostering the unique capabilities of each student, by sensitizing teachers as well as parents to promote each student's holistic development in both academic and non-academic spheres according to the highest priority to achieving Foundational Literacy and Numeracy by all students by Grade 3
  • Flexibility, so that learners have the ability to choose their learning trajectories and programs, and thereby choose their own paths in life according to their talents and interests; no hard separations between arts and sciences, between curricular and extra-curricular activities, between vocational and academic streams, etc. in order to eliminate harmful hierarchies among, and silos between different areas of learning.
  • Multidisciplinary and holistic education across the sciences, social sciences, arts, humanities, and sports for a multidisciplinary world in order to ensure the unity and integrity of all knowledge.
  • Emphasis on conceptual understanding rather than rote learning and learning-for-exams.
  • Creativity and critical thinking to encourage logical decision-making and innovation
  • Ethics and human & Constitutional values like empathy, respect for others, cleanliness, courtesy, democratic spirit, the spirit of service, respect for public property, and scientific temper. liberty, responsibility, pluralism, equality, and justice
  • Promoting multilingualism and the power of language in teaching and learning.
  • Life skills such as communication, cooperation, teamwork, and resilience.
  • Focus on regular formative assessment for learning rather than the summative assessment that encourages today's 'coaching culture.
  • Extensive use of technology in teaching and learning, removing language barriers, increasing access for Divyang students, and educational planning and management
  • Respect for diversity and respect for the local context in all curriculum, pedagogy, and policy.
  • Always keeping in mind that education is a concurrent subject; full equity and inclusion as the cornerstone of all educational decisions to ensure that all students are able to thrive in the education system; synergy in curriculum across all levels of education from early childhood care and education to school education to higher education
  • Teachers and faculty as the heart of the learning process their recruitment, continuous professional development, positive working environments, and service conditions
  • A light but tight regulatory framework to ensure integrity, transparency, and resource efficiency of the educational system through audit and public disclosure while encouraging innovation and out-of-the-box ideas through autonomy, good governance, and empowerment.
  • Outstanding research as a corequisite for outstanding education and development
  • Continuous review of progress based on sustained research and regular assessment by educational experts.
  • A rootedness and pride in India, and its rich, diverse, ancient, and modern culture and knowledge systems, and traditions.
  • Education is a public service; access to quality education must be considered a basic right of every child.
  • Substantial investment in a strong, vibrant public education system as well as the encouragement and facilitation of true philanthropic private and community participation.

  • The Vision of this Policy

    This National Education Policy envisions an education system rooted in Indian ethos that contributes directly to transforming India, that is Bharat, sustainably into an equitable and vibrant knowledge society, by providing high-quality education to all, thereby making India a global knowledge superpower. The Policy envisages that the curriculum and pedagogy of our institutions must develop among the students a deep sense of respect towards the Fundamental Duties and Constitutional values, bonding with one's country, and a conscious awareness of one's roles and responsibilities in a changing world.

    The vision of the Policy is to instill among the learners a deep-rooted pride in being Indian, not only in thought, but also in spirit, intellect, and deeds, as well as to develop knowledge, skills, values, and dispositions that support responsible commitment to human rights, sustainable development and living, and global well-being, thereby reflecting a truly global citizen.

    This policy focuses on different parts of education. Changes are briefly described for individual parts of the class :


  • This policy envisages that the extant 10+2 structure in school education will be modified with a new pedagogical and curricular restructuring of 5+3+3+4 covering ages 3-18. Currently, children in the age group of 3-6 are not covered in the 10+2 structure as Class 1 begins at age 6. In the new 5+3+3+4 structure, a strong base of Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) from age 3 is also included, which is aimed at promoting better overall learning, development, and well-being.


  • Quality Universities and Colleges: A New and Forward-looking Vision for India's Higher Education System

    Higher education plays an extremely important role in promoting human as well as societal well-being and in developing India as envisioned in its Constitution as a democratic, just, and social one, conscious, cultured, and humane nation upholding liberty, equality, fraternity, and justice for all. Higher education significantly contributes towards sustainable livelihoods and economic development of the nation. As India moves towards becoming a knowledge economy and society. more and more young Indians are likely to aspire to higher education. 9.1.1.

    Given the 21st-century requirements, quality higher education must aim to develop good, thoughtful, well-rounded, and creative individuals. It must enable an individual to study one or more specialized areas of interest at a deep level, and also develop character, ethical and Constitutional values, intellectual curiosity, scientific temper, creativity, the spirit of service, and 21st-century capabilities across a range of disciplines including sciences, social sciences, arts, humanities, languages, as well as professional, technical, and vocational subjects.

    A Quality higher education must enable personal accomplishment and enlightenment, constructive public engagement, and productive contribution to society, it must prepare students for more meaningful and satisfying lives and work roles and enable economic independence. For the purpose of developing holistic individuals, it is essential that an identified set of skills and values will be incorporated at each stage of leaming, from preschool to higher education. At the societal level, higher education must enable the development of an enlightened, socially conscious, knowledgeable, and skilled nation that can find and implement robust solutions to its own problems.

    Higher education must form the basis for knowledge creation and innovation thereby contributing to a growing national economy. The purpose of quality higher education is, therefore, more than the creation of greater opportunities for individual employment. It represents the key to more vibrant, socially engaged, cooperative communities and a happier, cohesive, cultured, productive, innovative, progressive, and prosperous nation.


  • I. Professional Education : Preparation of professionals must involve an education in the ethic and importance of public purpose, an education in the discipline, and an education for practice. It must centrally involve critical and interdisciplinary thinking, discussion, debate, research, and innovation. For this to be achieved, professional education should not take place in the isolation of one's specialty. Professional education thus becomes an integral part of the overall higher education system. Stand-alone agricultural universities, legal universities, health science universities, technical universities, and stand-alone institutions in other fields, shall aim to become multidisciplinary institutions offering holistic and multidisciplinary education. All institutions offering either professional or general education will aim to organically evolve into institutions/clusters offering both seamlessly, and in an integrated manner by 2030.

    II. Agricultural education:
    With allied disciplines will be revived. Although Agricultural Universities comprise approximately 9% of all universities in the country, enrolment in agriculture and allied sciences is less than 1% of all enrolment in higher education. Both capacity and quality of agriculture and allied disciplines must be improved in order to increase agricultural productivity through better-skilled graduates and technicians, innovative research, and market-based extension linked to technologies and practices. The preparation of professionals in agriculture and veterinary sciences through programs integrated with general education will be increased sharply. The design of agricultural education will shift towards developing professionals with the ability to understand and use local knowledge, traditional knowledge, and emerging technologies while being cognizant of critical issues such as declining land productivity, climate change, food sufficiency for our growing population, etc, Institutions offering agricultural education must benefit the local community directly; one approach could be to set up Agricultural Technology Parks to promote technology incubation and promote sustainable methodologies.

    III. Legal education: Needs to be competitive globally, adopting best practices and embracing new technologies for wider access to and timely delivery of justice. At the same time, it must be informed and illuminated with Constitutional values of Justice Social, Economic, and Political and directed towards national reconstruction through instrumentation of democracy, rule of law, and human rights. The curricula for legal studies must reflect socio-cultural contexts along with, in an evidence-based manner, the history of legal thinking, principles of justice, the practice of jurisprudence, and other related content appropriately and adequately. State institutions offering law education must consider offering bilingual education for future lawyers and judges in English and in the language of the State in which the institution is situated.

    IV. Healthcare education: Needs to be re-envisioned so that the duration, structure, and design of the educational programs need to match the role requirements that graduates will play. Students will be assessed at regular intervals on well-defined parameters primarily required for working in primary care and in secondary hospitals. Given that people exercise pluralistic choices in healthcare, our healthcare education system must be integrative meaning thereby that all students of allopathic medical education must have a basic understanding of Ayurveda, Yoga, and Naturopathy. Unani. Siddha, and Homeopathy (AYUSH), and vice versa. There shall also be a much greater emphasis on preventive healthcare and community medicine in all forms of healthcare education.


  • Strengthening the Central Advisory Board of Education : Achieving successful implementation of this policy demands a long-term vision, availability of expertise on a sustained basis, and concerted action from all concerned encompassing National, State, institutional, and individual levels. In this context, the Policy recommends strengthening and empowering the Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE) which will have a much greater mandate and not only a forum for widespread consultation and examination of issues relating to educational and cultural development.

    The remodeled and rejuvenated CABE shall also be responsible for developing, articulating, evaluating, and revising the vision of education in the country on a continuous basis, in close collaboration with MHRD and the corresponding apex bodies of States. It shall also create and continuously review the institutional frameworks that shall help attain this vision.To bring the focus back on education and leaming, it is desirable that the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) be re-designated as the Ministry of Education (MOE).

  • Implementation
  • Any policy's effectiveness depends on its implementation. Such implementation will require multiple initiatives and actions, which will have to be taken by multiple bodies in a synchronized and systematic manner. Therefore, the implementation of this Policy will be led by various bodies including MHRD, and CABE. Union and State Governments, education-related Ministries, State Departments of Education, Boards, NTA, the regulatory bodies of school and higher education, NCERT, SCERTS, schools, and HEls along with timelines and a plan for review, in order to ensure that the policy is implemented in its spirit and intent, through coherence in planning and synergy across all these bodies involved in education.